Evaluations and Research

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that stronger land tenure security has a positive impact on important development outcomes, such as household investment, women’s empowerment, agricultural productivity, rental markets, and credit.

While the initial evidence is encouraging, important knowledge gaps remain. Compared with the positive economic and food security gains seen from land tenure formalization programs in Asia and Latin America, results from similar programs in Africa have been mixed. There is also little evidence on the impact of alternative approaches to strengthening tenure, such as supporting customary land governance institutions or communal land certification, as opposed to more common efforts focused on formalizing property rights for individuals (e.g. land titling).

In this context, USAID is conducting eight rigorous impact evaluations in Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Tanzania, and Zambia to test development questions relevant to eliminating extreme poverty, empowering women, enhancing food security, improving natural resource management, improving climate change mitigation and adaptation, mitigating conflict, and promoting democratic governance and resilience.

Approach and Methods

All data sets, documentation, summary reports, and tools for data collection used in evaluations of our land tenure programs are provided here. These third-party evaluations are used to measure the impact of our development efforts and to foster learning and evidence-based decision making. These evaluations were designed in accordance with best practices set forth in USAID’s Evaluation Policy. This information is being made publicly available here as part of USAID’s commitment to transparency, accountability, and Open Data. We will encourage researchers, governments, practitioners and others to access and use this information in accordance with the terms of use.

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Impact Evaluation

Community-Based Forest Management Program (CFP) in Zambia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2015
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The CFP evaluation will test for improved local capacity to sustainably manage forests; greater perceived value of forests and forest resources and improved climate change adaptation; increased knowledge and awareness of deforestation; and improved transparency, accountability, and representativeness of customary forest governance institutions.

Impact Evaluation

Ethiopia Land Tenure Administration Program (ELTAP) and Ethiopia Land Administration Program (ELAP)

Data Collection (Baseline): 2012 | Data Collection (Endline): 2015
Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

The ELTAP/ELAP evaluation estimates the impacts of second-level certification relative to first-level certification on household beneficiaries in terms of access to credit; land disputes; land rental activity; soil and water conservation investments; land tenure security and female empowerment and decision-making related to land.

Impact Evaluation

Land Administration to Nurture Development Project (LAND) in Ethiopia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The LAND impact evaluation will assess the outcomes and impacts of interventions related to formally recognizing customary land rights of pastoral communities, improving communal land governance and strengthening pastoral communities’ capacity to engage in effective land use planning, land management and investment negotiations.

Impact Evaluation

Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development Project II (PRADD II) in Guinea

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The PRADD II Guinea evaluation will assess the project’s impact on strengthening surface and sub-surface property rights, enhancing livelihood outcomes, reducing land and natural resource conflict and promoting the environmental rehabilitation of artisanal mining sites with a focus on the differential impacts these interventions have on women, resource-constrained and other potentially vulnerable groups, such as youth.

Impact Evaluation

Tenure and Global Climate Change (TGCC) in Zambia

Data Collection (Baseline): 2014 | Data Collection (Endline): 2017
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management

The primary objective of the TGCC impact evaluation is to determine whether or not village and household tenure interventions strengthen smallholder tenure security and resource rights and, in turn, lead to increasing farmer investment in sustainable agroforestry and increased adoption of Climate Smart Agriculture practices.

Performance Evaluation

Mast Workshop Document: June 3, 2016 Mast Performance Evaluation

Data Collection (Baseline): 2016

USAID’s Mobile Application to Secure Tenure (MAST) Lessons Learned Workshop took place on June 3, 2016. Documents from the workshop, including the PowerPoint presentations, and Lessons Learned Report and Executive Summary, are available on www.usaidlandtenure.net. This report presents the findings, conclusions, and recommendations from a performance conducted by the E3 Analytics and Evaluation Project evaluation…Read More


Article: Hollywood Ending for Lamu’s Boni-Lungi Forest?

This article in Chonjo Magazine explores the Boni people in Lamu, Kenya and their relationship with the forested lands between the Dodori and Boni National Reserves. Threats to their way of life and potential solutions are discussed.