The Kimberley Process, signed by 37 countries at its launch in 2002, is an international certification scheme that regulates trade in rough diamonds. It aims to prevent the flow of conflict diamonds, while helping to protect legitimate trade in rough diamonds. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) outlines the rules that govern the trade in rough diamonds.
Kimberley Process (KP) participants are states and regional economic integration organizations that are eligible to trade in rough diamonds. As of November 2013, there are 54 participants representing 81 countries—including all major rough diamond producing, exporting and importing countries—with the European Community counting as a single participant. The diamond industry, through the World Diamond Council, and civil society groups are also integral parts of the KP. These organisations have been involved since the start and continue to contribute to its effective implementation and monitoring.
In 2003, the United States implemented the Clean Diamond Trade Act, which requires that rough diamonds imported or exported from the United States be controlled through the Kimberley Process. The Act also authorized the U.S. Department of State to work closely with USAID to finance projects to improve compliance with the KPCS.
In 2012, USAID worked with the KP Working Group on Artisanal and Alluvial Production (WGAAP) to draft the Washington Declaration, which incorporated development goals into the Kimberley Process to further advance artisanal mining sector compliance and was adopted in during the annual KP plenary. Within one year, USAID published the Washington Declaration Diagnostic Framework (WDDF) with support from other KP stakeholders, including the WGAAP. The Framework was designed to help artisanal diamond producing countries evaluate how their legal frameworks, policies, and practices regarding artisanal and small-scale diamond mining align with the goals of the Washington Declaration to improve and monitor their progress over time.
Photo Credit: Sandra Coburn / The Cloudburst Group