The internal armed conflict in Colombia has not just perpetuated the land problems experienced by indigenous people; it has also resulted in serious consequences with regard to their ability to survive, by putting their culture, environment, and identity at risk, which are specific to each indigenous people. Thus, these violations of their fundamental rights have had severe implications for the collective land rights of each of these peoples. The Serranía del Perijá mountain range is located in the northern area of Colombia, in the border with Venezuela. The Yukpa people, victims of the internal armed conflict, have traditionally inhabited this area. The Land Restitution Unit (LRU) of Colombia initially conducted three characterization/ diagnostic studies on land and ethnic rights. In 2016, USAID’s Land and Rural Development Program (LRDP) supported three additional studies and issued a series of recommendations on how to improve the methodology. These three studies included all of the Yukpa community, which became the first indigenous people to complete the administrative phase of the restitution process. These characterization studies are to serve as the main input for transitional justice to make decisions regarding ethnic community patients.
Key Words: Indigenous peoples, ethnic territories, armed conflict, ethnic restitution, victims.